Research Article

Lifestyle Diseases and the Hair Growth Cycle: A multidisciplinary approach using Nourkrin® with Marilex®, a proteoglycan replacement therapy, for anagen induction and maintenance

Thom E* and Thom EW

Published: 08 December, 2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 1 | Pages: 006-011

Multiple studies have investigated the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and cardiovascular disease, including studies that have identified elevated rates of cardiovascular disease in patients with vertex hair loss, vertex and frontal hair loss, early onset hair loss and rapidly progressive hair loss. In addition, increased risks for hypertension, excess weight, abnormal lipids, insulin resistance, carotid atheromatosis and death from diabetes or heart disease have been reported in this population. Studies investigating an association between androgenetic alopecia and metabolic syndrome have yielded conflicting findings. Distinct guidelines for the detection and prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals with androgenetic alopecia have not been established. In addition to the traditional risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, included in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, several skin diseases have recently been shown to be markers of conditions relating to the patient’s overall health. Physicians should be aware of the possible connection between relatively frequent skin diseases, such as psoriasis and hair growth disruptions, including androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss and cardiovascular disease. This review is concentrated on the association between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease and hair growth disruptions as an early indicator of these underlying conditions. We have investigated the importance of robust primary clinical treatment measures to address the manifestation of hair loss due to a disruption caused by metabolic syndrome as an effective means to alleviate further stress induced hair loss, which can exacerbate the underlying cause.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.adr.1001002 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Androgenetic alopecia; Risk factor; Cardiovascular disease; Metabolic syndrome; Diabetes; Proteoglycan replacement therapy


  1. Price VH. Treatment of hair loss. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 964-973. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fZc4nT
  2. Paus R, Cotsarelis G. The biology of the hair follicles. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 491-497. Ref.: https://goo.gl/r27k4W
  3. Ellis J, Sinclair R, Harrap SB. Androgenetic alopecia: pathogenesis and potential for therapy. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2002; 4: 1-11. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2wGv1K
  4. Gan DC, Sinclair RD. Prevalence of male and female pattern in Maryborough. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005; 10: 184-189. Ref.: https://goo.gl/kCjePF
  5. Donovan J, Goldstein BG, Goldstein O. Androgentic alopecia in men: Pathogenesis , clinical features, and diagnosis.
  6. Setty LR. Hair patterns of scalp of white and Negro males. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1970; 33: 49-55. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fww2zJ
  7. Paik JH, Yoon JB, Sim WY, et al. The prevalence nd types of androgenetic alopecia in Korean men and women. Br J Dermatol. 2001; 145: 95-99. Ref.: https://goo.gl/shkoWZ
  8. Küster W, Happle R.The inheritance of common baldness; two B or not two B? J m Acd Dermtol. 1984; 11: 921-926. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ebGqRQ
  9. Ellis JA, Stebbing M, Harrap SB. Genetic analysis of male pattern baldness and the alpha-reductase genes. J Invest Dermatol. 1998; 110: 849-853. Ref.: https://goo.gl/D42hA1
  10. Birch MP, Messenger AG. Genetic factors predispose to balding and non-balding in men. Eur J Dermatol. 2001; 11: 309-314. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bztYtc
  11. Lopez-Candales A. Metabolic syndrome X: Comprehensive review of the pathophysiology and recommended therapy. J Med. 2001; 32: 283-300. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2FZJMN
  12. Su LH, Chen LS, Lin SC, Chen HH. Association of androgenetic alopecia with mortality from diabetes mellitus and heart disease. JAMA Dermatol. 2013; 149: 601-606. Ref.: https://goo.gl/f5DRRW
  13. Arias-Santiago S, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Castellote-Caballero L, Buendía-Eisman A, Naranjo-Sintes R. Androgenetic alopecia and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women: A comparative study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010; 63: 420-429. Ref.: https://goo.gl/g9fypd
  14. Ahouansou S, Le Toumelin P, Crickx B, Descamps V. Association of androgenetic alopecia and hypertension. Eur J Dermatol. 2007; 17: 220-222. Ref.: https://goo.gl/gh5TWG
  15. Hirsso P, Rajala U, Hiltunen L, Jokelainen J, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, et al. Obesity and low-grade inflammation among young Finnish men with early-onset alopecia. Dermatology. 2007; 214: 125-129. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HjPwGE
  16. Su LH, Chen TH. Association of androgenetic alopecia with metabolic syndrome in men: A community-based survey. Br J Dermatol. 2010; 163: 371-377. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bTbCKU
  17. Yi SM, Son SW, Lee KG, Kim SH, Lee SK, et al. Gender-specific association of androgenetic alopecia with metabolic syndrome in a middle-aged Korean population. Br J Dermatol. 2012; 167: 306-313. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nwM7Fn
  18. Hirsso P, Laakso M, Matilainen V, Hiltunen L, Rajala U, et al. Association of insulin resistance linked diseases and hair loss in elderly men. Finnish population-based study. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2006; 14: 78-81. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Qim8Ch
  19. Arias-Santiago S, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Castellote-Caballero L, Buendía-Eisman A, Naranjo-Sintes R. Androgenetic alopecia and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women: A comparative study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010; 63: 420-429. Ref.: https://goo.gl/EYCtqC
  20. Arias-Santiago S, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Castellote-Caballero L, Buendía-Eisman A, Naranjo-Sintes R. Male androgenetic alopecia and cardiovascular risk factors: A case-control study. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2010; 101: 248-256. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7nwcVx
  21. Lotufo PA, Chae CU, Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Manson JE. Male pattern baldness and coronary heart disease: The Physicians’ Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 165-171. Ref.: https://goo.gl/85X7xY
  22. Napolitano M, Megna M, Monfrecola G. Insulin resistance and skin diseases. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015: 2015: 479354. Ref.: https://goo.gl/i2RrBi
  23. Padi T, Garima. Metabolic Syndrom and Skin: Psoriasis and Beyond. Indian J Dermatol. 2013; 58: 299-305. Ref.: https://goo.gl/uLgehC
  24. Lønnberg AS, Skov, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Pedersen OB, et al. Association of psoriasis with the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. JAMA Dermatol. 2016; 152: 761-767. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8RsDdY
  25. Gelfand JM. Psoriasis,Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Weighing the evidence. JAMA Dermatol. 2016; 152: 753-754. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FDhz1C
  26. Thom E. Stress and the Hair Growth Cycle: Cortisol-Induced Hair Growth Disruption. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016; 15: 1001-1004. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Ui4aP8
  27. McElwee KJ, Shapiro J. Promising therapies for treating and/or preventing androgenic alopecia. Skin Therapy Lett. 2012; 17: 1-4. Ref.: https://goo.gl/dsGE5J
  28. Bernard BA. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth. Version 1. F1000Res. 2016; 5: F1000. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zJiZw7
  29. Couchman JR. Hair Follicle Proteoglycans. J Invest Dermatol. 1993; 101: 60S-64S. Ref.: https://goo.gl/KvsmrF
  30. du Cros DL, LeBaron RG, Couchman JR. Association of Versican with Dermal Matrices and its Potential Role in Hair Follicle Development and Cycling. J Invest Dermatol. 1995; 105: 426-431. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LE3nVq
  31. Kishimoto J, Ehama R, Wu L, Jiang S, Jiang N, et al. Selective activation of the versican promoter by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during hair follicle development. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 1999; 96: 7336-7341. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Kz88i1
  32. Kishimoto J, Soma T, Burgeson R, Hibino T. Versican expression by dermal papilla-regenerated hair follicles-a promising tool for hair-regrowth products. Int J Cosm Sci. 2004; 26: 165-166. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nKJWpo
  33. Soma T, Tajima M, Kishimoto J. Hair cycle-specific expression of versican in human hair follicles. J Dermatol Sci. 2005; 39: 147-154. Ref.: https://goo.gl/tePcg8
  34. Malgouries S, Thibaut S , Bernard BA. Proteoglycan expression patterns in human hair follicle. Br J Dermatol. 2008; 158: 234-242. Ref.: https://goo.gl/NDXV9a
  35. Thom E. Nourkrin : Objective and subjective effects and tolerability in persons with hair loss. J Int Med Res. 2008; 34: 514-519. Ref.: https://goo.gl/w2b8wT
  36. Thom E, Wadstein J, Thom EW, Kingsley DH. Treatment of hair thinning and hair aging with specific lectican and leucine proteoglycans. A review J Appl Cosmetol. 2014; 32: 105-115.

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More